The Independent Movement In Nyanza during Colonial Days
(a) Nomiya Luo Mission of John Owalo
Nomiya means "The mission that was given to me" Nomiya Luo Mission was started by Jon Owalo in 1910.
Owalo proclaimed himself a prophet. He claimed to have seen a vision in which God directed him to start his own religion. The church was meant to correct the racist attitude of the missionaries.
Owalo denied the divinity of Jesus but accepted Jesus as a prophet.
Within a few years Owalo had over 1000 followers and had built his own primary schools.
- He also wanted to build his own secondary school where missionaries would not interfere.
He demanded African representatives in the local council.
He preached that the end of the world was near and that white men would be killed sing they were devils.
He appealed to his followers to abandon everything that was European and go back to their traditions.
The CMS missionaries dismissed him as a
• lunatic and rebel.
(b) Dini -ya Roho
Founded in 1927 after the followers broke away from the
friends of Africa mission at Kaimosi.
- They believed in being possessed by the Holy Spirit and public confession of sin. They also spoke in tongues.
Followers were allowed to marry many wives and pay dowry.
Alfayo Odongo Mango founded a similar church in year 1932 among the Luo called Jaroho.
(c) Christian Universal Evangelical Union -Ishmael Noo
Founded in 1938. Noo came from Sakwa in Central Nyanza.
By 1944, Noo had a following of 4,000 people.
Most of his followers were women like second and third wives in polygamous
families as well as wives of unsaved husbands.
INDEPENDENT 'MOVEMENTS IN CENTRAL KENYA
There was disagreement between the and Church of Scotland mission over the of female circumcision.
The missionaries also condemned drinking beer, polygamy and payment of dowry.
- Those who refused to denounce their traditional customs were suspended from church and their children couldn't be educated.
They established their churches where could worship since they were only opp-_: to the westernizing effect of missionaries _ not Christianity itself.
KIKUYU INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS
The first independent school among the Kikuyu was established at Gaithieko,in 1913.
The land on which the school was built was donated by one of the elders, Mukunga : Njehu.
Another school was established in 1922 Githunguri on a land donated by Wilsor, Gathuru.
PROBLEMS FACED BY KIKUYU INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS
(a) Lack of trained teachers
(b) Lack of co-ordination of programmes be in the schools.
(c) Lack of proper curriculum.
(d) Lack of finances.
(e) Lack of facilities e.g. books.
(f) Fight for leadership by founders.
(g) Fight from the government
(h) Fight from the missionaries.
(i) The schools were few and couldn't satisfy increasing, demand of African education
(j) Leaders lacked managerial skills.
Two independent schools associations v. formed among the Agikuyu to address problems.
Kikuyu Karinga Education Association
2. Kikuyu Independent Schools Association:- These two associations were responsible for the establishment and running of independent schools in many parts of central Kenya.
KIKUYU INDEPENDENT CHURCHES
1. AFRICAN INDEPENDENT Pentecostal CHURCH (AIPC)
It was established in 1929. broke away from the gospel missionary society in Githunguri.
The District Commissioner allowed their establish their own churches and schools around Kihumbuini.
The leaders included Peter Gatheca and Mureithi who were educated by Gospel missionary society.
The independent churches lacked trainer ordained ministers.
- They sought help from the Bishop of Mombasa to train their leaders.
The Bishop declined and they invited Reverend William Alexander of the Africa Orthodox Church in South Africa.
He arrived in Kenya in 1935.
- He opened a seminar in Gituamba in 1935 However; he lost favour with Gituamba people because of several issues.
1. He was accused of keeping baptism money for himself instead of giving part of it for the upkeep of the church and schools.
2. He was accused of being friendly to some members of Kikuyu Karinga Education Association which was a rival group.
3. Alexander wanted a big church to be built at Gituamba and ruined after him.
He wanted AIR: church to be a branch of Orthodox Church of South Africa.
I-le wanted the ordained ministers to be responsible to him.
- This wasn't possible and he was asked to leave after finishing his job.
One of his graduates, David Maine trained and ordained ministers to the AIPC and the
influence of the church was felt in Central, Rift valley and Western Kenya.
AFRICAN ORTHODOX CHURCH
There were two African orthodox churches. One was founded by Arthur Gatungu who was expelled from AIPC. He was a close friend of Alexander during his stay in Kikuyu land.
The other Orthodox Church was founded by Philip Kiande also expelled from AIPC. Kiande had great desires to form links with the Orthodox Church in South Africa.
- Kiande and Gatungu were rivals.
PROBLEMS FACED BY INDEPENDENT CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS
1. Constant harassment from the missionaries and colonial government
2. Most were closed down in 1952 after declaration of state of emergency and leaders arrested.
3. Lack of trained personnel who could run the institutions effectively.
4. They lacked funds because they depended on Africans support and Africans had been impoverished by the Europeans.
5. Leadership squabbles. All the founders wanted to be recognized as leaders.
6. Competition from mission churches and schools for followers.