Meals for Various Groups:
Different people require different meals. The meals vary with the amount of nutrients they contain. There are those who only eat plant products while others can eat both animal and plant products. Some require foods that are solid while others eat semi solid foods.
Meals for children
1.) Give a balanced diet rich in calcium and phosphorous for strong bones and enough energy foods.
2.) Provide variety foods to allow choice.
3.) Provide crunchy and crispy foods to exercise teeth and jaw bone.
4.) Serve small quantities in small plates or bowls.
5.) Present attractively.
6.) Food should not be highly seasoned, flavoured or sweetened.
7.) Avoid giving snack in between meal other than milk and fruits.
8.) Give enough fluid to aid digestion and replace fluids lost during play.
9.) Give vegetables and fruit to provide roughage which prevents constipation.
Meals for adolescents
1.) Give balance diet to provide plenty of proteins, mineral salts e.g., iron, calcium and phosphorus and vitamin C.
2.) Include plenty of energy giving foods.
3.) Provide adequate amount of food as teenagers have healthy appetite.
4.) Serve regularly and attractively.
5.) Provide plenty of green vegetable and fresh fruits for roughage.
6.) Provide enough fluids to compensate for the fluid lost as sweat during physical activities.
Meals for invalids
A.)Should be balanced and with plenty of body- building and protective foods.
b.)Follow the doctor's instructions.
c.) Serve meals at regular intervals and punctually.
d.)Prepare and serve meals under hygienic conditions.
f.)Serve small helping and encourage a second helping.
g.)When using a tray avoid overcrowding and include flowers. .
h.)Avoid reheated and fatty foods.
i.)The food should be soft.
j.)Avoid strong flavored foods and over seasoning.
k.)Serve warm food hot and cold food cold.
l.)Ensure comfortable and a sitting position of the patient while taking the meal.
m.)Clear the tray immediately after eating.
Meals for convalescents
These are people who are recovering an illness.
a.)Should be balanced and with plenty of body-building and shielding food.
b.)Serve slightly larger portion.
c.)Serve more of energy-giving foods as the person is more active.
d.)Encourage the person to join other family member at the table.
e.)Follow the doctor's instructions.
f.) Serve meals at regular intervals and punctually.
g.)Prepare and serve meals under hygienic conditions.
h.)Avoid strong flavored foods and over seasoning.
i.)Serve hot food hot and cold food cold.
j.)Avoid reheated and fatty foods.
k.)Serve the meals attractively.
l.)The food should be less soft
Meals for the elderly
A lot of changes has taken place such as
1.) Decreased level of acidity or gastric juice hence poor digestion.
2.) Decreased rate of absorption.
3.) Loss of teeth which hinders eating of foods which require chewing.
4.) A low rate of metabolism.
5.) Reduce sense of taste and smell resulting in low appetite.
6.) Reduced physical activity thus need less energy giving foods.
Points to consider
a.)Ensure and provide a balance diet with normal amount of body-building foods and defensive foods but less energy —giving foods.
b.)Provide well cooked and easy to digest meals.
c.)Avoid fatty and greasy foods.
d.)The food should be palatable, soft and easy to chew.
e.)Give them what they are willing to eat by considering their likes and dislike.
f.)Provide foods which are rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine and vitamins A, B, C and D.
g.) Serve small amount and at regular intervals.
h.)The food should be well seasoned.
i.)Serve the food attractively and in dainty serving dishes.
Meals for manual workers
These are people involved in heavy work e.g. masons, farmers mechanics.
Points to consider
a.)Give a well balance diet with extra amount of energy-giving foods.
b.)Provide enough of proteins to build strong muscles.
c.)Provide enough of Vitamin B to help to facilitate the release of energy in the body.
d.)Serve adequate amount of food.
e.)The food should be well flavored.
f.)Give plenty of fluids to replace what is lost through sweating.
Meals for vegetarians
This is a person who does not eat meat i.e. animal fresh. These are of 2 types of vegeterains namely:
(i) Strict vegetarians (vegan)- They eat food only from plants as the source of protein i.e. from legumes, nuts, etc.
(ii) Lacto- vegetarians- They eat dairy products i.e. animal products e.g. eggs, milk, cheese, butter and cream as the source of proteins.
Reasons for becoming a vegetarian may be;
a.)Moral or religious
c.)Psychological associated with a traumatic meat experience.
Points to consider when planning meals for vegetarians
a.)Meals should be well balanced with all the nutrients in the correct amount.
b.)Provide variety of dishes
Meals for The Expectant Mother
a.)The meal should be well balanced with extra iron, calcium, protein and protective foods.
b.)Give enough of energy giving foods to provide enough calories to carry the increase weight.
Prepare and serve meals under hygienic conditions.
a.)Serve meals at regular intervals and punctually
c.)Avoid over seasoning and strong flavored food.
d.)Provide food which is easy to digest and palatable.
e.)Consider likes and dislikes so as to give them what they are willing to eat.
f.)Avoid fatty and greasy foods to prevent heartburn.
g.)Provide plenty of fresh fruits and vegetable to prevent constipation.
Meals for a lactating mother (breast - feeding/ nursing mother)
Points to consider;
a.)The meal should be well balanced.
b.)Provide enough proteins, iron, carbohydrates, fats and vitamins A and C.
c.)Give adequate calcium for strong bone and teeth.
d.)Provide plenty of fluids to increase milk production.
e.)Serve the food attractively.
f.)Serve the meals punctually and at regular intervals to avoid monotony.
g.)The meals should be well flavored to improve the appetite.
h.)Mix different foods for strict vegetarian to ensure a complete protein supply.
i.)Provide appropriate amount of vegetables, fat and oil.
j.)For lacto - vegetarians make good use of animal products to provide a complete protein supply.